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Tropical Storm Josephine was the eleventh tropical cyclone and tenth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. Josephine developed out of a non-tropical low which formed off a dissipating stationary front located 750 nmi (1,390 km) east of Bermuda on September 16. The low gradually developed into a tropical depression on September 17. The depression moved slowly north over the next day before being upgraded to a tropical storm. After being upgraded to a tropical storm, Josephine accelerated to the northwest as a minimal tropical storm before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on September 19. Josephine briefly reached an intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h) as an extratropical cyclone before merging with an extratropical frontal system.

Meteorological historyEdit

Tropical Storm Josephine developed out of a non-tropical low which formed off a dissipating stationary front on September 16. The low drifted towards the north-northeast as it was embedded in an upper-level trough while gaining tropical characteristics.[1] The low was upgraded to Tropical Depression Eleven on September 17 while located about 710 miles (1,150 km) east of Bermuda. The depression did not develop high cloud tops but did have enough height to be considered tropical.[2] By the nighttime hours, wind shear elongated the small amount of deep convection present in the depression, but wind estimates showed a well defined area of tropical depression winds over a 210 mi (310 km) circular area around the center.[3] Based on a 43 mph (69 km/h) wind report from a ship in the area of the depression, the National Hurricane Center upgraded Tropical Depression Eleven to Tropical Storm Josephine in the morning hours of September 18. Josephine was located in between two prominent steering factors: a subtropical high to the northeast of the storm and a frontal system approaching from the west. The combination of the two led Josephine to move rapidly towards the northeast at 15 mph (20 km/h).[4]

Josephine continued to struggle with maintaining deep convection but continued to maintain a well defined low level cloud circulation.[5] During the afternoon, a small burst of deep convection appeared at the storm's center, allowing it to maintain tropical storm strength.[6] Similar bursts of convection continued overnight as a frontal system began to absorb Josephine.[7] Convection continued to increase despite water temperatures decreasing as Josephine quickly traveled towards the northeast. Josephine reached its peak intensity as a tropical system just before becoming extratropical at this time. Winds peaked at 40 mph (65 km/h) and the pressure was 1009 mbar (29.81 hPa).[8] Josephine merged into a large extratropical low and suddenly intensified. Winds increased to 60 mph (95 km/h) and the pressure dropped to 1004 mbar (29.66 hPa). The extratropical low was quickly absorbed by another larger extratropical system on the afternoon of September 19.[9]

Impact and namingEdit

The storm never approached land during its lifespan, and no damage or casualties were reported.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Richard J. Pasch (2003-01-13). "Tropical Storm Josephine Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2002josephine.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  2. Pasch (2002-09-17). "Tropical Depression Eleven Discussion One". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.001.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  3. Stewart (2002-09-17). "Tropical Depression Eleven Discussion Two". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.002.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  4. Stewart (2002-09-18). "Tropical Storm Josephine Discussion Three". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.003.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  5. Pasch (2002-09-18). "Tropical Storm Josephine Discussion Four". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.004.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  6. Pasch (2002-09-18). "Tropical Storm Josephine Discussion Five". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.005.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  7. Pasch (2002-09-18). "Tropical Storm Josephine Discussion Six". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.006.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  8. Stewart (2002-09-19). "Tropical Storm Josephine Discussion Seven". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.007.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  9. Beven (2002-09-19). "Extratropical Storm Josephine Discussion Eight". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2002/dis/al112002.discus.008.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 

External linksEdit

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