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Tropical Storm Edouard was unusual for its extreme northeasterly located in the Atlantic Ocean. The sixth tropical cyclone and fifth named storm of the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season, Edouard developed on August 2 from non-tropical mid-latitude cyclone, although initially forming as a subtropical depression. subtropical storm, then gradually acquiring tropical characteristics in the vicinity of the Azores. Remaining a subtropical cyclone for four days, the system transitioned into a tropical depression on August 6, finally strengthening into Tropical Storm Edouard after duration for nearly a week. Edouard managed to peak as a minimal tropical storm while again crossing through the Azores, before subsequently weakening. Tropical Storm Edouard quickly lost all tropical characteristics, and transitioned into a weak extratropical storm north of the Azores.

Tropical Storm Edouard was named in the extreme northeast Atlantic Ocean, but no records were broken, however, it is only slightly south Tropical Storm Grace in 2009, and Tropical Storm Alberto in 1988.[1][2] Tropical Storm Edouard only resulted in light affects to the Azores, with no reports of damage or fatalities.

Meteorological History

The origins of Tropical Storm Edouard were from a strong mid-latitude cyclone and a frontal wave that initially developed into a subtropical depression on August 2 just east of the Azores. Associated with an upper-level cold low, it intensified into a subtropical storm on August 3. Water temperatures were cooler than what is usually required for tropical cyclogenesis, although baroclinic development allowed continued development. Heading westward through the Azores, the storm passed near the island of Graciosa, before weakening back to a subtropical depression on August 4. Turning to the southwest, the depression executed a small cyclonic loop, during which deep and organized convection developed near the center of circulation as an upper level low moved away. This prompted the National Hurricane Center to reclassify the system as Tropical Depression Six on August 6 at 1800 UTC.

The tropical depression moved northeastward toward the Azores, and based on ship reports was upgraded to Tropical Storm Edouard on August 8. Shortly thereafter it reached peak winds of Template:Convert/mph, and subsequently it moved past the northern Azores. On August 10 Edouard weakened to tropical depression status, and on August 11 it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone as it continued in a generally eastward direction. The remnants of Edouard dissipated on August 13, a few hundred miles west of Portugal.[3][4]


There were no watches or warnings issued in association with Tropical Storm Edouard. However, there were statements indicated that tropical storm conditions could spread across the islands. Many of the western islands reported winds of at Template:Convert/mph. The island of Horta reported winds gusts from 35 mph to 65 mph. Lajes Air Force Base on Terceira Island reported a maximum wind gust of Template:Convert/mph. Also a tower on the island of Terceira reported sustained winds at Template:Convert/mph, while a gusts as high as Template:Convert/mph were recorded.[5]


  1. Jeff Masters (October 5, 2009). "Surprise tropical storm forms near the Azores; Invest 91L has potential to develop". Weather Underground. Retrieved October 7, 2009. 
  2. Hurricane Specialists Unit (2009). "Easy to Read HURDAT 1851-2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 28, 2009. 
  3. Case, Robert (1990). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Edouard". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  4. Case, Robert (1990). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Edouard". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  5. Case, Robert (1990). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Edouard". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 

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