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Hurricane Jeanne was the tenth named storm of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. It was a Category 2 hurricane that did not affect land while tropical, although it brushed the Cape Verde Islands. Hurricane Jeanne was seen as a threat to the Azores. However, Jeanne caused some gusty winds in the Azores shortly before passing through and losing tropical characteristics. Also Jeanne made landfall in the Iberian Peninsula on October 4, while extratropical. On September 16, Hurricane Jeanne shared the Atlantic with three other hurricanes: Georges, Ivan, and Karl.
Hurricane Jeanne formed from a tropical wave that slowly emerged from Africa. It stayed by the African coast for the next few days and slowly became better organized. By September 21, the storm had acquired a closed circulation and on the early morning hours of September 21, the storm reached depression status. It was then designated operationally designated as Tropical Storm Jeanne, although post-analysis indicated that it was only a tropical depression. Forming about 380 mi (511 km) southeast Cape Verde, the storm became the easternmost forming tropical cyclone in the Atlantic since Tropical Storm Christine in 1973 since the National Hurricane Center began keeping records in 1851. The depression began moving northward and became further organized. Later that same day, Tropical Storm Jeanne was upgraded to a hurricane. It reached a peak intensity of 105 mph (170 km/h) and a pressure of 969 mbar (hPa; 28.61 inHg) while 120 mi (190 km) away from the Cape Verde Islands.
For the next few days the storm continued westward. Then the forward speed slowed to 10 mph (15 km/h) and the storm turned north. The system then weakened mainly due to increased wind shear caused by a mid to upper trough in the troposphere. Under the influence of the trough the storm continued to the northwest and re-intensified to a secondary peak of 90 mph (140 km/h) while 550 mi (890 km) from the Azores. Jeanne went to the northeast and weakened to a tropical storm. By the time Jeanne reached the Azores on October 1, it was a depression and was losing tropical characteristics. Hurricane Jeanne became extratropical while in the vicinity of the Azores. After dissipation, the extratropical system accelerated to around 14 mph (23 km/h) forward speed. The extratropical low made landfall near Lisbon, Portugal on October 4. The extratropical remnants became unidentifiable over Spain later that day.
Impact and records
On September 26, Hurricane Georges was over the Straits of Florida, Hurricane Ivan was in the North Atlantic, and Hurricane Karl was located over the Central Atlantic. Hurricane Jeanne was one of four simultaneously active hurricanes in the Atlantic, the first such occurrence since August 22, 1893. However, three hurricanes also co-existed in the Atlantic on September 11, 1961, with a possible fourth. In the Azores, winds near 43 mph (70 km/h) were recorded on the island of Horta. Other than in the Azores, Jeanne remained away from land as a tropical cyclone, so no property damage or fatalities were reported; no ships were affected, and no tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Pasch, Richard (February 8, 1999). "Hurricane Jeanne Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1998jeanne.html. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- ↑ Avila, Lixion (September 30, 1998). "Tropical Depression Jeanne Advisory #38". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/pub/PAL1098.038. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- ↑ Max Mayfield (1998-11-16). "Hurricane Karl Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1998karl.html. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- ↑ Pasch, Richard (September 30, 1998). "Tropical Depression Jeanne Discussion Number 37". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/dis/NAL1098.037. Retrieved 2010-01-15.