An Atlantic–Pacific crossover hurricane is a tropical cyclone that develops in the North Atlantic Ocean and moves into the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of seven tropical cyclones have done this so far. It is more common for the remnants of an Atlantic hurricane to redevelop into another storm in the Pacific, however, they are not considered the same system. For example, Tropical Storm Bret regenerated into Hurricane Greg in 1993. Since 2001, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) has intitiated a policy stating that if an Atlantic tropical cyclone crosses into the Pacific basin or vice versa, the storm will retain its name. However, if the storm degenerates in one basin but its remnants survive into the other, it will receive two different names, and therefore not be considered a crossover.
List of crossover hurricanes
This list comprises storms that crossed from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean or vice versa. If a storm existed in both basins but degenerated and later regenerated or it crossed into another basin but only made it to the foreign basin as a depression, it is included in the list below.
- Unnamed, October 1842
- Unnamed, September-October 1876
- Unnamed, October 1923
- Unnamed, Septmber-October 1949
- Irene-Olivia, September 1971
- Fifi-Orlene, September-October 1974
- Greta-Olivia, September 1978
- Joan-Miriam, October-November 1988
- Cesar-Douglas, July-August 1996
- Otto, November 2016.
This section documents storms that crossed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, but they degenerated in one basin and subsequently regenerated as a new storm in the other or the storm crossed over into another basin but only made it as a depression.
NOTE: Please feel free to add a crossover case to this list and/or improve ones already on the list.
- Tropical Storm Hector in August 2012's formation was partially caused by Atlantic Hurricane Ernesto's remnants which mainly dissipated over Mexico.
- Tropical Storm Hermine in September 2010 developed from Pacific Tropical Depression Eleven-E's remnants that degenerated over Mexico.
- Tropical Storm Alma in May 2008 formed off the western coast of Costa Rica, made landfall over Nicaragua, and then dissipated over Nicaragua. Alma's remnants then interacted with two Carribean Sea tropical waves before developing into Tropical Storm Arthur.
- Tropical Storm Earl in August 2004 dissipated in the southeastern region of the Carribean Sea, but its extratropical remains then regenerated as Hurricane Frank in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
- Hurricane Iris in October 2001 dissipated over Central America, but part of its remnants regenerated into Tropical Storm Manuel in the East Pacific basin.
- Tropical Depression Nine in September 2001 degenerated into a wave after its Central America landfall. That wave continued into the East Pacific and later developed into the tropical depression that became the powerful and destructive Hurricane Juliette.
- Following its Mexican landfall, Hurricane Gert in September 1993 survived over the country's mountainous terrain and crossed over into the East Pacific. It was redesignated Tropical Depression Fourteen-E upon crossing, but it dissipated before it could be named.
- Severely disrupted by the terrain of Nicaragua and Colombia, Tropical Storm Bret in August 1993 degenerated shortly after being reclassifed as Tropical Depression Eight-E in the Pacific. However, the wave that once defined the depression came back to life as Hurricane Greg, which furtermore intensified into one of the many powerful and intense hurricanes that year.
- After its Mexican landfall, Hurricane Diana in August 1990 survived over the mountainous terrain of Mexico and became a depression in the Pacific, but it was not reclassifed and never reached tropical storm intensity.
- Hurricane Cosme in June 1989 made landfall on Mexico's Pacific coast and dissipated over Northern Mexico, with its remnants partially fueling the destructive Tropical Storm Allison.
- As it approached Grenada, Tropical Storm Isaac in September and October 1988 rapidly weakened to a tropical depression and ultimately degenerated to a tropical wave. The wave continued into the East Pacific and briefly became Tropical Depression Twenty-E.
- Hurricane Debby in August and September 1988 sucessfully transversed Mexico's rough mountainous terrain after landfall in that country and was reclassified as Tropical Depression Seventeen-E upon arrival in the East Pacific, but it dissipated due to insufficient conditions in the Gulf of California before becoming named.
- Hurricane Kristy in August and September 1988 formed from Tropical Depression Six in the Atlantic, which degenerated into the Western Carribean Sea.
- A different Hurricane Kristy in August 1978 formed from the remnants of Atlantic Hurricane Cora, which degenerated near South America due to terrain disruption of the core.
- Tropical Storm Bess, also in August 1978, dissipated over Mexico following its landfall there, but its remnants fueled the moderately intense Pacific Hurricane Iva.
- Powerful Hurricane Anita in August 1977 survived over Mexico's rough terrain after making the most intense Gulf Coast landfall there, and was reclassifed as Tropical Depression Eleven upon arrival in the Pacific basin. The depression did not last long and dissipated after only a day in the Pacific without ever becoming a tropical storm.
- Hurricane Francelia in September 1969 took 3 days to cross central America and redeveloped as Hurricane Glenda (Monthly Weather Review Vol 98 #4 Page 304)
- An unnamed tropical storm in June 1965 crossed from the Pacific to the Atlantic via Guatemala and Mexico as a tropical depression, but it was operationally missed.
- No Atlantic tropical cyclone has crossed into the Pacific and then back into the Atlantic (or vice versa), but some speculation has arisen over whether or not this crossover case did do so. After causing great devestation across British Honduras, powerful Atlantic Hurricane Hattie in October 1961 dissipated over Guatemala. Despite this, envelopes of moisture continued on into the Pacific. Around this time, Tropical Storm Simone was developing off Guatemala's western coast. Although no clear evidence has been found that Simone was merely a continuation of Hattie, it is argued and debated that was the case. Furthermore, Simone made its Mexican landfall almost directly over the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Despite dissipating, envelopes of moisture and instablility from Simone's remnants continued into the Atlantic. As it was doing so, Tropical Storm Inga, the only November Gulf of Mexico tropical storm ever recorded, completed cyclogenesis. Debate has also arisen if Inga and Simone were the same storm. No evidence has proved Inga was a continuation of Simone (which itself is debated as a continuation of Hattie). Pending reanalysis, Hattie, Simone, and Inga will be treated as three seperate storms. This picture shows what would happen in the hypothesis these three storms do get reclassifed as one storm.
- Hurricane Celeste in July 1960 formed from the remnants of Hurricane Abby, which degenerated over Central America and Mexico.